I started my CLAT preparation from 15th March, 2017. In order to prepare for CLAT entrance exam for P.G course which was to be held on 14/May/2017, I got various references available in market but soon as I started studying from them , I realised I need more material with updated information .
I searched on net and came across various institute offering LL.M coaching but none offering LL.M notes other than Justitia Law Institute (now Rashee’s Law Center). There Rashee Ma’am, guided me how to go about for CLAT preparation.
Synopsis of Syllabus of Law UGC-Net Entrance Exams
There shall be two question papers:
1. General Paper (Common to all subjects)
2. NET Law Paper II
1. General Paper (Common to all subjects) The following pertains to the list of topics that have been covered under the subject heads in details:
Teaching Aptitude: Teaching: Concept, Objectives, Levels of teaching; Characteristics and basic requirements; Learner’s characteristics: Characteristics of adolescent and adult learners (Academic, Social, Emotional and Cognitive), Individual differences; Factors affecting teaching related to: Teacher, Learner, Support material, Instructional facilities, Learning environment and Institution; Methods of teaching in Institutions of higher learning: Teacher centred vs. Learner centred methods; Off-line vs. On-line methods (Swayam, Swayamprabha, MOOCs etc.); Teaching Support System: Traditional, Modern and ICT based; Evaluation Systems: Elements and Types of evaluation, Evaluation in Choice Based Credit System in Higher education, Computer based testing, Innovations in evaluation systems.
Research Aptitude: Research Meaning, Types, and Characteristics, Positivism and Post-positivistic approach to research; Methods of Research: Experimental, Descriptive, Historical, Qualitative and Quantitative methods; Steps of Research; Thesis and Article writing: Format and styles of referencing; Application of ICT in research; Research ethics.
Comprehension : A passage of text be given. Questions be asked from the passage to be answered
Communication : Communication: Meaning, types and characteristics of communication; Effective communication: Verbal and Non-verbal, Inter-Cultural and group communications, Classroom communication; Barriers to effective communication; Mass-Media and Society.
Mathematical Reasoning and Aptitude: Types of reasoning; Number series, Letter series, Codes and Relationships; Mathematical Aptitude (Fraction, Time & Distance, Ratio, Proportion and Percentage, Profit and Loss, Interest and Discounting, Averages etc.).
Logical Reasoning: Understanding the structure of arguments: argument forms, structure of categorical propositions, Mood and Figure, Formal and Informal fallacies, Uses of language, Connotations and denotations of terms, Classical square of opposition; Evaluating and distinguishing deductive and inductive reasoning; Analogies; Venn diagram: Simple and multiple use for establishing validity of arguments; Indian Logic: Means of knowledge; Pramanas: Pratyaksha (Perception), Anumana (Inference), Upamana (Comparison), Shabda (Verbal testimony), Arthapatti (Implication) and Anupalabddhi (Non-apprehension); Structure and kinds of Anumana (inference), Vyapti (invariable relation), Hetvabhasas (fallacies of inference).
Data Interpretation : Sources, acquisition and classification of Data; Quantitative and Qualitative Data.; Graphical representation (Bar-chart, Histograms, Pie-chart, Table-chart and Line-chart) and mapping of Data; Data Interpretation; Data and Governance.
Information And Communication Technology (ICT): ICT: General abbreviations and terminology; Basics of Internet, Intranet, E-mail, Audio and Video-conferencing; Digital initiatives in higher education; ICT and Governance.
People, Development and Environment: Development and environment: Millennium development and Sustainable development goals; Human and environment interaction: Anthropogenic activities and their impacts on environment; Environmental issues: Local, Regional and Global; Air pollution, Water pollution, Soil pollution, Noise pollution, Waste (solid, liquid, biomedical, hazardous, electronic), Climate change and its Socio-Economic and Political dimensions; Impacts of pollutants on human health; Natural and energy resources: Solar, Wind, Soil, Hydro, Geothermal, Biomass, Nuclear and Forests; Natural hazards and disasters: Mitigation strategies; Environmental Protection Act (1986), National Action Plan on Climate Change, International agreements/efforts -Montreal Protocol, Rio Summit, Convention on Biodiversity, Kyoto Protocol, Paris Agreement, International Solar Alliance.
Higher Education System: Institutions of higher learning and education in ancient India; Evolution of higher learning and research in Post Independence India; Oriental, Conventional and Non-conventional learning programmes in India; Professional, Technical and Skill Based education; Value education and environmental education; Policies, Governance, and Administration.
NOTE: Five questions each carrying 2 marks are to be set from each Module. Whenever graphical/pictorial question(s) are set for sighted candidates, a passage followed by equal number of questions and weightage be set for visually impaired candidates.
2. NET Law Paper II
The following pertains to the list of topics that have been covered under the subject heads in details in the books given to the students:
Jurisprudence: Nature and sources of law; Schools of jurisprudence; Law and morality; Concept of rights and duties; Legal personality; Concepts of property, ownership and possession; Concept of liability; Law, poverty and development; Global justice; Modernism and post-modernism
Constitutional And Administrative Law: Preamble, fundamental rights and duties, directive principles of state policy; Union and State executive and their interrelationship; Union and State legislature and distribution of legislative powers; Judiciary; Emergency provisions; Temporary, transitional and special provisions in respect of certain states; Election Commission of India; Nature, scope and importance of administrative law; Principle of natural justice; Judicial review of administrative actions – Grounds.
Public International Law And International Humanitarian Law: International law – Definition, nature and basis; Sources of International law; Recognition of states and governments; Nationality, immigrants, refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs); Extradition and asylum; United Nations and its organs; Settlement of international disputes; World Trade Organization (WTO); International humanitarian law (IHL) - Conventions and protocols; Implementation of IHL – Challenges
Law Of Crimes: General principles of criminal liability – Actus reus and mens rea, individual and group liability and constructive liability; Stages of crime and inchoate crimes - Abetment, criminal conspiracy and attempt; General exceptions; Offences against human body; Offences against state and terrorism; Offences against property; Offences against women and children; Drug trafficking and counterfeiting; Offences against public tranquility; Theories and kinds of punishments, compensation to the victims of crime.
Law Of Torts And Consumer Protection: Nature and definition of tort; General principles of tortious liability; General defenses; Specific torts – Negligence, nuisance, trespass and defamation; Remoteness of damages; Strict and absolute liability; Tortious liability of the State; The Consumer Protection Act 1986 - Definitions, consumer rights and redressal mechanism
The Motor Vehicles Act, 1988: No fault liability, third party insurance and claims tribunal.
The Competition Act, 2002: Prohibition of certain agreements, abuse of dominant position and regulation of combinations
Commercial Law: Essential elements of contract and e-contract; Breach of contract, frustration of contract, void and voidable agreements; Standard form of contract and quasi-contract; Specific contracts - Bailment, pledge, indemnity, guarantee and agency; Sale of Goods Act, 1930; Partnership and limited liability partnership; Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881; Company law – Incorporation of a company, prospectus, shares and debentures, Directors and meetings; Corporate social responsibility
Family Law: Sources and schools; Marriage and dissolution of marriage; Matrimonial remedies - Divorce and theories of divorce; Changing dimensions of institution of marriage – Live-in relationship; Recognition of foreign decrees in India on marriage and divorce; Maintenance, dower and stridhan; Adoption, guardianship and acknowledgement; Succession and inheritance; Will, gift and wakf; Uniform Civil Code
Environmental Law: Meaning and concept of ‘environment’ and ‘environmental pollution’; International environmental law and UN Conferences; Constitutional and legal framework for protection of environment in India; Environmental Impact Assessment and control of hazardous waste in India; National Green Tribunal.
Human Rights Law: Concept and development of human rights; Universalism and cultural relativism; International Bill of Rights; Group rights – Women, children, persons with disabilities, elderly persons, minorities and weaker sections; Protection and enforcement of human rights in India – National Human Rights Commission, National Commission for Minorities, National Commission for Women, National Commission for Scheduled Castes, National Commission for Schedule Tribes and National Commission for Backward Classes
Intellectual Property Rights: Concept and meaning of intellectual property; Theories of intellectual property; International conventions pertaining to intellectual properties; Copyright and neighboring rights – Subject matters, limitations and exceptions, infringement and remedies; Law of patent – Patentability, procedure for grant of patent, limitations and exceptions, infringement and remedies; Law of trademark – Registration of trademarks, kinds of trademarks, infringement and passing off, remedies; Protection of Geographical Indications.
Information Technology Law: digital signature and electronic signature; electronic governance, electronic records and duties of subscribers; Cyber crimes, penalties and adjudication.
Comparative Public Law And Systems Of Governance: Comparative Law – Relevance, methodology, problems and concerns in Comparison; Forms of governments – Presidential and parliamentary, unitary and federal; Models of federalism – USA, Canada and India; Rule of Law – ‘Formal’ and ‘substantive’ versions; Separation of powers – India, UK, USA and France; Independence of judiciary, judicial activism and accountability – India, UK and USA; Systems of constitutional review – India, USA, Switzerland and France; Amendment of the Constitution – India, USA and South Africa; Ombudsman –Sweden, UK and India; Open Government and Right to Information - USA, UK and India